Saturday, March 14, 2020
Animals and Their Environment To understanding individual animals, and in turn populations of animals, you must first understand the relationship they have with their environment. Animal Habitats The environment in which an animal lives is referred to as its habitat. A habitat includes both biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) components of the animals environment. Abiotic components of an animals environment include a huge range of characteristics, examples of which include: TemperatureHumidityOxygenWindSoil compositionDay lengthElevation Biotic components of an animals environment include such things as: Plant matterPredatorsParasitesCompetitorsIndividuals of the same species Animals Get Energy From the Environment Animals require energy to support the processes of life: movement, foraging, digestion, reproduction, growth, and work. Organisms can be categorized into one of the following groups: Autotroph- an organism that obtains energy from sunlight (in the case of green plants) or inorganic compounds (in the case of sulfur bacteria)Heterotroph- an organism that uses organic materials as a source of energy Animals are heterotrophs, obtaining their energy from the ingestion of other organisms. When resources are scarce or environmental conditions limit the ability of animals to obtain food or go about their normal activities, animals metabolic activity may decrease to conserve energy until better conditions prevail. A component of an organisms environment, such as a nutrient, that is in short supply and therefore limits the organisms ability to reproduce in greater numbers is referred to as a limiting factor of the environment.Ã The different types of metabolic dormancy or responses include: Torpor- a time of decreased metabolism and reduced body temperature in daily activity cyclesHibernation- a time of decreased metabolism and reduced body temperature that may last weeks or monthsWinter sleep- periods of inactivity during which body temperature does not fall substantially and from which animals can be awakened and become active quicklyAestivation- a period of inactivity in animals that must sustain extended periods of drying Environmental characteristics (temperature, moisture, food availability, and so on) vary over time and location so animals have adapted to a certain range of values for each characteristic. The range of an environmental characteristic to which an animal is adapted is called its tolerance range for that characteristic. Within an animals tolerance range is an optimal range of values at which the animal is most successful. Animals Become Acclimated to Survive Sometimes, in response to a prolonged change in environmental characteristic, an animals physiology adjusts to accommodate the change in its environment, and in doing so, its tolerance range shifts. This shift in tolerance range is called acclimation. For example, sheep in cold, damp climates grow thicker winter coats. And, a study of lizards showed that those acclimated to warm weather could maintain a faster speed than lizards not acclimated to those conditions. Likewise, the digestive systems of white-tailed deer adjust to the available food supply in winter versus summer.
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Views on Just War - Essay Example There were a variety of reasons as to why war can occur, and this may involve personal or judicial reasons. The reasons as to coming up with war need further justification as to its reasons, and goals. The majority root for all the debates is that these reasons must coincide and fit with the nature of war. However, one seemingly ideal question that needs focus is the existence of just war itself. The World War 2 is a definite example to examine and justify the existence of just war. World War 2 The World War 2 began on September 1, 1939, and it lasted for six years. This war was known to be one of the most dreadful wars the world has ever known. The war sparked when Germany took hold of Poland without permission. This then motivated Britain and France to join the war and fight against Germany. Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and South Africa later joined the war within a week from the start of war (World War 2.net, n.d.). The causes of World War 2 in summary started when Germany took over Poland. However, there were underlying reasons before it came to the point where Germany invaded Poland. The known underlying causes of World War 2 were Ã¢â¬Å"Treaty of Versailles, HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Actions, Failure of Appeasement, and Failure of the League of NationsÃ¢â¬ (History On the Net.com, 2011). The Ã¢â¬Å"Treaty of Versailles was about the deals that were discussed as to how Germany should be held liable for World War 1Ã¢â¬ peace (History On the Net.com, 2011). The deals were not served as fair and just for the Germans, and they had Adolf Hitler to fight for their rights. Ã¢â¬Å"Adolf HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s actionsÃ¢â¬ particularly invading countries and not keeping his word with regard to peace and integrity made its way to becoming one of the complex reasons of war. The Ã¢â¬Å"failure of appeasementÃ¢â¬ was about deals that failed to provide the demands of Germans considering that Adolf HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s actions were acceptable. Ã¢â¬Å"Failure of the Leagues of Na tionsÃ¢â¬ was about the failure of the League, and the member countries to enhance world peace (History On the Net.com, 2011). These then were the basis as to how World War 2 was born, and a few of the many justifications that World War 2 was in fact, a just war due to the policies and logical reasons involved. Laws on War: Jus ad Bellum The laws on war are primarily focused on justifying the validity of war or the existence of a just war. Ã¢â¬Å"Jus ad bellumÃ¢â¬ is a title that provides and considers the legitimacy of a war or how far would a war be considered just. This originated from the Ã¢â¬Å"Charter of the United NationsÃ¢â¬ under article 2. This article states the involvement of states that use force to gain control and personal interest (Nabulsi, n.d.). The 6 Categories of Just War under Jus ad bellum The justification on the legitimacy of just war should fit on the 6 categories of the jus ad bellum to be able to declare a war that is just or acceptable. Below are the categories and there association to World War 2 justification, and existence of just war. A war must have a valid cause. One of the many examples would be Ã¢â¬Å"defence of others from aggressive attackÃ¢â¬ (Lacewing, n.d.). The World War 2 was highlighted primarily because of the defense of other countries to Poland when Germany took over them. This was unannounced, and several innocent lives were sacrificed. A war must have the Ã¢â¬Å"
Monday, February 10, 2020
Indias Criminal Justice System and Terrorism - Essay Example IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s criminal justice system has improved a great deal when compared to the system in effect during the fourth century B.C. India during this period had a very strict penal system which involved death and mutilation as punishment for even minor offenses. Nevertheless, there are many improvements to be made in the system so that it will become more effective. A possible improvement could include eliminating corruption within legislation by sharing powers equally among the three branches of government. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s government can strengthen its criminal justice system by providing more courtrooms and judges to rule and pass sentence upon the increasing number of cases. The judiciary system should ensure that cases are handled in a timely fashion and fairly. That way it would ensure all persons, who have been accused, a right to a quick and fair trial. The threat of terrorism has become a continuous global threat. India should take further measures in the future to prevent further instances by admitting and enforcing stricter laws and penalties against any act of or relating to terrorism. Frankly, this country cannot afford not to be more proactive against this outbreak of national and world wide terrorism. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s court system declares that a Ã¢â¬Å"criminal justice system could not function without the cooperation of its people.Ã¢â¬
Friday, January 31, 2020
Wuthering Heights Essay In Chapter 5, Nelly comments that though capable of sweetness, Cathy likes to act the little mistress, and it is this awareness of the social differences between she and Heathcliff that lead her, to marry Edgar Linton who is handsomeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"pleasant to be with. In Chapter 9 when Nelly implies that these reasons are superficial, Cathy tells of her plan to use Edgars money to help Heathcliff Ã¢â¬Å"riseÃ¢â¬ from his outsider status, and how it would Ã¢â¬Å"degradeÃ¢â¬ her to marry Heathcliff, although she does say Heathcliff is Ã¢â¬Å"more myself than I amÃ¢â¬ : This viewpoint displays love where Freud says Ã¢â¬Å"the boundary between ego and object threatens to melt away. Against all the evidence of their senses, a man/woman who are in love declare Ã¢â¬ËI and you are one, and is prepared to behave as if it were a fact. As a result Edgar Linton is an outsider to this love, and this ultimately leads to CathyÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to respond to his later request that she either Ã¢â¬Å"give up HeathcliffÃ¢â¬ or him, for it is Ã¢â¬Å"impossible for [her] to be [his] friendÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"[HeathcliffÃ¢â¬â¢s] at the same time. Ã¢â¬Å" This battle between the two men to posses Cathy inevitably results in her death. Although Heathcliff has the appearance and manners of a gentleman, the revenge he plans is diabolical, and though she loves him, Cathy is not fooled, when she and Heathcliff meet for the last time she tells him, he has Ã¢â¬Å"broken [her] heartÃ¢â¬ and that she shall not be at peace. She dies two hours after midnight, having given birth to a puny, seven months childÃ¢â¬ . The location of CathyÃ¢â¬â¢s grave then indicates the extent to which she was separated from the rest of her family and from the society of Gimmerton, Ã¢â¬Å"Neither in the chapel under the monument of the LintonÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ , nor yet the tombs of her own relations, outsideÃ¢â¬ It is a spot isolated within the churchyard and reclaimed by the wilderness of the moor as befits her nature. Heathcliff is later buried alongside her allowing the kindred souls to Ã¢â¬Å"mergeÃ¢â¬ and dissolve into each other to achieve a unity, which transcends the petty struggles of social class and outsiders, ever present in the world of Ã¢â¬Å"Wuthering HeightsÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Wuthering HeightsÃ¢â¬ is often seen by critics to allude to ideas of The Fall, evident in the character of Isabella Linton who falls from the enviable position of being an insider, to an outsider. In spite of CathyÃ¢â¬â¢s blunt warning that Hes a fierce, pitiless, wolfish man, Isabella still chooses to elope with Heathcliff under the delusion of him being a Byronic Hero. However in her failure to heed CathieÃ¢â¬â¢s warning she finds herself measured against the standards of her legal overseer and turned into a Ã¢â¬Å"fugitiveÃ¢â¬ . As a woman of the 19th century she would have been heavily dependent on her husband and Heathcliff sees this as an opportunity to literally incarcerate her in a marriage she describes as Ã¢â¬Å"worse than solitude. Ã¢â¬ In Chapter 13 when she decides to return home, the rift between brother and sister is evident as Edgar refuses to take her back claiming, Ã¢â¬Å"She is only [his] sister in nameÃ¢â¬ , precipitating her departure to the south, where she remains an outsider and outcast until her death. Similarly in Ã¢â¬Å"OrangesÃ¢â¬ JeanetteÃ¢â¬â¢s return to the fold is ultimately problematic and unsatisfactory as nothing seems to have changed.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Everyone should have his own characteristics. Some of those characteristics should be positive while some should be negative, and they might be changed as time passes and things happens. Throughout theÃ Ã story "Tears, Idle Tears" , the author shows thatÃ Mrs.Dickinson has characteristics of a beautiful, independent and demanding person. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is so common to describe a woman a beautiful. Especially when Mrs.Dickinson is a typical model of beauty. She is well fashioned in what she wears, she has real good dressings. "She was a gallant-looking woman, wearing to-day in London a coat and skirt, a silver fox, white gloves and a dark-blue toque put on exactly right".(P110) As a model of beauty, she is also very attractive on herself. "She was a charming woman walking by herself". (P112) Because she is such a good looking, lovely woman, there is no question that many men couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t resist her attractiveness and want to marry with her. "Several man wanted to marrt her".(P113) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Mrs.Dickinson is a widow because her husband died in a plane crash. That makes her to be a independent person. After the death of her husband, she has no help in anyway. She tend take care of the family by herself. Financially, she has to go out and work, she has two jobs which will earn her money to live. "She helped a friend with a little hat shop......bred puppies for sale". Emotionally, she is independent. Her son, Frederick, is the only one lives with her. She hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t marry any other man in five years after the death of her husband. "It was five years since her tragedy and she had not married." (P112) She also try to raise her son by herslef. There is no baby-sister to take care of Frederick. She is the only one who puts Federick on first place. "But you see, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s Frederick. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s the man in my life now. IÃ¢â¬â¢m bound to put him firstt". (P113) As she becomes a widow, she try to do everything on herslef, without anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s help. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã By reading the story, it is so easy to realize that Mrs.Dickinson is a bery demanding person. Demanding is not a bad thing, but she is doing it at a wrong way. She is have too much demands on Frederick. As Frederick cries, she demands him to stop cring. "Frederick, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t --- in the middle of RegentsÃ¢â¬â¢s park".
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Interest Groups: 15. 3. 2013 Globalization occurring at rapid speeds is having vast affects on the Canadian political system. The strong emergence and growing influence of interest groups, gained through institutionalization and immense monetary funding have proven to become a direct threat to political parties in the modern age. This essay will primarily discuss, Ã¢â¬Å"Pressure Groups: Talking ChameleonsÃ¢â¬ written by Paul Pross.Following, the analysis of the article, Ã¢â¬Å"Wilderness Politics in BC: The Business Dominated State and the Containment of EnvironmentalismÃ¢â¬ written by Jeremy Wilson. And finally, discuss and evaluate the vital contents of both articles in relation to other academic sources. Paul Pross identifies that modern governments in Canada have problems communicating with the public sector. Public debate was originally controlled by the government, however in the early 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s policymaking became more of a public process.Governments could no longe r insist on withholding valuable information, and the public insisted on increased transparency. Electronic media has proven to be a large contributor in the sense that it has created an environment encouraging public participation and the notion of making groups less dependent on bureaucracies. This resulting in a diffusion of power, granting more influence to the public sector. Prior to the emergence of these interest groups, political parties were the main vehicle enabling citizens to channel their concerns mainly by elections and enabling communication to and from the government.Political parties alone would not suffice to account for the entire populations aggregated demands and thus governments continue to further support pressure groups to battle the constant problem of communication. Interest groups simply emerged as individuals acting together and attempting to influence public policy in the direction of their common interests. In some cases what originated as little organi zations has now emerged into influential contributors to the policy making process. This raising concern that the Canadian democratic system is threatened by these emerging interests groups.Pross emphasizes that unless interest groups have access to substantial resources, their influence will be insignificant in most cases. Another factor which causes for some interest groups to survive and other to fail in the political system is undergoing the process of institutionalization. Pross defines an institution as a sophisticated entity, in which members have structured relationships, and collectively attempt to achieve a common goal. As Philip Selznick says, Ã¢â¬Å"As the institutionalization progresses the enterpriseÃ¢â¬ ¦ becomes peculiarly competent to do a particular type of work. The process of constant adaptation, and establishing connections to the government officials is of immense value in order for an interest group to partake in the policy process. The sub government process es the policy issues, it consists mainly of government agencies however interest groups and large corporations are also included to a certain extent. The degree of inclusion is debatable however the interest groups are guaranteed Ã¢â¬Å"a seat on the tableÃ¢â¬ and thus consult with the government on a daily basis.Ideally the interest groups gain influence in policy decision and thus for the benefit of the government can successfully accomplish the citizens aggregate demands. However as of 1993 party activists began to criticize the influence of interest groups since they were constantly winning concessions over political parties. There was a large amount of party antipathy coming mostly from the government itself in the sense reducing direct funding to interest groups, and limiting advertising groups during election periods.Kim Campell was a great contributor towards reducing the influence of interest groups, as she remarks, Ã¢â¬Å" Interest groups are no longer useful adjuncts t o the political system, but a direct competition rival to political parties. Ã¢â¬ The notion of interest groups superseding political parties, and serving as the main channel to communicate with the government had become true. In this globalized world, Pross identifies the challenge between interest groups and political parties as inevitable. He metaphorically describes interest groups as Ã¢â¬Å"talking chameleonÃ¢â¬ this explains the superiority of interest groups to a certain extent.Unlike political parties, interest groups and corporations, are not specifically interested in the occurrence of certain locations, they plant themselves in many places, furthermore they have the ability to draw funds from around the world. Another factor making the political party inferior is its longstanding values, territorial basis restricting it from expansion since political parties aim to accomplish control of legislative. Hence since the legislature is based on a territorial perimeter, th e rest of the political party body must follow in this direction.In contrast to some interest groups, political parties have not fully been able to achieve a system which incorporates the public into the policy making process. Pross questioned whether the fragmentation of the political parties endangers long-standing institutions, or if this merely is the politics of the new age. Canada has witnessed the emergence of a new public philosophy Ã¢â¬Å"pluralismÃ¢â¬ started taking the place of the previous representative parliamentary democracy. Pluralism emphasizes the collaboration between government and interest groups.Ideally members of private groups exchange ideas and negotiate with government civil servants. The second article written by Jeremy Wilson focuses on how the British Columbian governments responds in regard to the so called environmentalist movement starting 1975 to 1989. The timber and paper industry is of vast importance to the economy of British Columbia. Most of the timber is Crown owned, and distributed to companies under long contracts, these licenses are easily renewable. Hence environmentalist protest against this established hierarchy.They argue in favor of tenure alternations and demand more caution regarding the protection of British ColombiaÃ¢â¬â¢s wildlife. Environmentalists demand the forest areas to be protected and transformed into parks however corporations claim this is unwise use of the land. The article Global Spin by Sharon Beder analyzes the notion of anti-environmentalism. As mentioned in Wilsons article Beder, Ã¢â¬Å"reveals the deceptive and unethical underpinnings of the Ã¢â¬Å"wise useÃ¢â¬ movement, industry front groups, contrarian think tanks, multinational public relation firms, and media establishments. regulations. As Wilsonhad mentioned, the interest groups were arguing against the single use of areas, as they promoted multiple use which further legitimized their corporate use of forrest areas. These concer ns are very problematic for the forest corporations as an alternation of the tenure regulations would directly alter the value of the commodity and thus damage the economy as a whole. Timber companies, began to heavily lobby against these proposed suggestions, using there extensive wealth to battle environmentalistÃ¢â¬â¢s claims.These forest corporations, have extensive resources, a continuing organizational structure consisting of established professionals familiar to the governmental processes to represent their aggregate demands. According to R. V. Smith Ã¢â¬Å"Forest tenures and timber supply and the commitments by which those tenures are held are the fundamental asset by which potential investors or lenders judge the viability of a company. Ã¢â¬ It became clear that the security of timber was the priority for forest corporations.Thus the conservative stance of forest corporations claimed that the environmentalists were putting at risk a Ã¢â¬Å"system that has long legitimi zed a profitable traffic in rights to Crown resources. Ã¢â¬ Hence as could be expected the corporations heavily campaigned against the emerging environmental movement by adopting a hardline attitude; one sign of retreat will automatically result in further demands. Environmentalist movement pursuing redistributive politics in British Columbia challenged the establishment.These new groups want a share of the pie which was a strictly closed community consisting of; Ã¢â¬Å"Ministry of Forests (MOF), cabinet committee having ultimate responsibility for resolving land use disputes and the 10 or 12 major forest companies that hold tenure rights to over 60% of BCÃ¢â¬â¢s forest lands. This challenge resulted in minor alternations and corporations are no longer unchallenged, however this is a prime example in parallel the previously mentioned quote by Selznick; Ã¢â¬Å"in order for pressure groups to carry out their functions they need to become peculiarly competent. The institutionalize d pressure groups have immense power which are difficult to challenge, especially in the Forest industry of British Columbia. Hence the challenges of the environmentalist were everything but a paradigm shift. It appears that policy makers are under sever constraints from policies adopted by previous governments. There are deep rooted problems beginning with the fact that the process concerning resource management being a closed matter to the public. Furthermore provincial legislators playing no role in decision-making process, thus the power is held in the hands of cabinet ministers and other officials.Environmentalists groups like the Western Canada Wilderness Committee began to adopt the approach of a Ã¢â¬Å"moral call outÃ¢â¬ appealing on an emotional level to the citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ regard the environment. In addition their arguments mainly suggested that tourism would decreases as lumbering prevails. Even though the citizens are now collectively assisting as a bureaucracy they have no virtual political power in the decision making process. Most of the environmentalist movements is funded out of members due, or paid individually. None of the groups considered in the article has sufficient funds to support media advertising campaigns, or maintain a full time lobbyist in Victoria. Ã¢â¬ Quite similar to the analysis of Pross, Wilson clearly defines that money plays a large role in the power dynamics between governments, corporations and environmentalists. Another key factor to note is that since the 1982 adoption of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, interest groups have resorted to utilizing the process of litigation. Litigation under the charter is now partially funded by the government, in programs such as the Ã¢â¬Å"Court Challenges Program. The answer is not as simple according to Paul Pross; In the optimal case interest groups offer access to the political decisions, which were originally, influenced by elites, hence establishing a new soci al order. However in 1992 there was a fair degree of constitutional discussion, questioning whether or not to fully include women Aboriginal groups and other minority groups into policy making process. At first many were for the groups inclusion, however others feared that the re-ordering of social power portrayed by the Charlottetown accord.The aboriginal women groups attempted to achieve redistribution of power and saw this as an opportunity to partake in the constitutional debate. Unfortunately people developed a radical bias which primarily associated fragmentation process to the attempts of this group, even though they were following the footsteps of more Ã¢â¬Å"established interest, Ã¢â¬ In fact the gross part of the debate is dominated by the institutionalized groups a majority of these specifically representing business interests.The political process has become very diffuse, it has become difficult to differentiate between individual and public interests, and there have been cases of interest groups especially corporations establishing themselves by institutionalizing and extensive lobbying, and are thus dominating in certain policy processes. A consensus is established than overall interest groups are an effective method of getting to the public, however some groups have extensively developed into structures, giving them superiority and priority over other interests.This in Canada has lead to a sharp decline of the political party and a increase of interest groups. Wilson in his article describes a sheer decrease in motivation of the environmentalist, since there continuous attempts had little affects on public policy. Furthermore the structuring of Wilderness politics has put nominated preservation candidates into the foreground placing environmentalists at a disadvantage. This structure ignored the environmentalistsÃ¢â¬â¢ claims to a small portion of the remaining wilderness, and furthermore creates the illusion that they are greedy. We gave t hem South Moresby, now they want Stein. Ã¢â¬ In summary of both articles and additional sources, it can be said that main themes continue to re-occur. Initially interest groups were a great access tool for governments, to communicate with the public sector, however after the diffusion of powers in Canada, some interest groups have attained extensive powers. These groups have achieved this by undergoing the process of institutionalization at rapid speeds differentiating themselves in terms to influence compared to environmentalist groups for instance.The corporations are now so established and reluctant to give into any environmentalistÃ¢â¬â¢s demands. IN addition Interests groups typically establish ongoing relationships with the departments of government corresponding to their interest, this is also known as Ã¢â¬Å"elite accommodationÃ¢â¬ has become very common in Canadian politics. The only solution which remains for environmentalist groups is to rise and attain power by; developing a cohesive inter group structure, institutionalizing and possibly merging with other interest groups to broaden the monetary funding established through increased membership.Environmentalist can thus employ professional lawyers and other personal to lobby on their behalf. The future entails many possibilities; on one hand the environmentalists groups could successfully expand their influence to eventually restructuring forest land use policy and thus would demonstrate how interest groups are not necessarily monopolistic and how there is room at the table for new comers. However the problem of the economy remains; one could pose the question of how a decrease in the revue caused by enforced regulations by environmentalist would be compensated to British Columbia economy as a whole? Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- [ 1 ]. Paul Pross, Pressure Groups: Talking Chameleons. (Nelson, 1995): pp. 263s . [ 2 ]. Paul Pross, op cit. , pp. 263. [ 3 ]. Political demands of individual persons and corporations. [ 4 ]. Paul Pross, op cit. , pp. 252. [ 5 ]. Paul Pross, op cit. , pp. 257. [ 6 ]. Paul Pross, op cit. , pp. 259. [ 7 ]. Paul Pross, op cit. , pp. 260. [ 8 ]. Paul Pross, op cit. , pp. 264. [ 9 ]. Paul Pross, op cit. , pp. 265. [ 10 ]. Paul Pross, op cit. , pp. 69. [ 11 ]. Paul Pross, op cit. , pp. 269. [ 12 ]. Paul Pross, op cit. , pp. 270. [ 13 ]. Hugh H. Thorburn, Interest Groups and Polic Policy in Canada. (Queen's law journal. 1988) pp. 447. [ 14 ]. Jeremy Wilson, Wilderness Politics in BC. (Missisagua, Ontario, 1989): pp. 142. [ 15 ]. Jeremy Wilson, op cit. , pp. 143. [ 16 ]. Beder, Sharon. Global spin: the corporate assault on environmentalism. Alternatives Journal25. 4 (Fall 1999): pp. 42. [ 17 ]. Jeremy Wilson, op cit. , pp. 143. [ 18 ].Jeremy Wilson, op cit. , pp. 143. [ 19 ]. Paul Pross, op cit. , pp. 260. [ 20 ]. Jeremy Wilson, op cit. , pp. 147. [ 21 ]. Jeremy Wilson , op cit. , pp. 151. [ 22 ]. Morton Ã¢â¬â Allen. Feminisits and the Courts: Measuring success in Interest Group Litigation in Canada. (Canadian Journal of Political Science, 2001) pp. 55. [ 23 ]. Jeremy Wilson, op cit. , pp. 167. [ 24 ]. Jeremy Wilson, op cit. , pp. 167. [ 25 ]. Hugh H. Thorburn, Interest Groups and Polic Policy in Canada. (Queen's law journal. 1988) pp. 445.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Running Head: LEADERSHIP 1 Leadership in the Public Policy Process Sharon Lockhart Foundations of Public Administration/PPA601 Dr. LaQuita Gray-Baker April 3, 2017 LEADERSHIP 2 Leadership in the Public Policy Process The publicÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦To sum all up, charismatic traits are most important because they conform to various situations (Cropf, 2008). A charismatic leader uses communication traits to communicate the needs and interest surrounding the creation of public policies. Public policies are created in the best interest of the public, therefore, the traits of the charismatic leaders are important because the leader go above LEADERSHIP 3 and beyond to insure sound policies. Creating public policies that are unbreakable requires a leader with strong professional and personal traits as the charismatic leaders. Does a leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s educational background matter significantly in providing leader- Ship in the policy making process? Educational background matter significantly in providing leadership in the policy making process. There are different courses that will give leaders knowledge in politics and the policy making process. Leadership in the policy making process should have an idea of the economic, political, government and public problems. Educational background will ensure leadership have the knowledge how a policy is made up. Hypothetically speaking, anyone dreaming of leading a country, Ã¢â¬Å"their best chance of being a leader is to get a major or advance degree in econ omics, law andShow MoreRelatedLeadership in the Process of Public Policy Development559 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesLeadership in the Process of Public Policy Development Introduction Leadership in public service involves capability in a number of areas in order to be successful. 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